No one wants to be the focus of official law enforcement attention, but in the event that you are it's in your best interest to know your rights. During the course of any official interaction these rights may change as your status changes, from questioning to detainment and finally to arrest. Likewise though, the burden on law enforcement also changes throughout this process, and if you know your rights your interactions with the police can be a far less frightening experience.
During your initial interaction with a police officer your rights are fairly limited, but so are theirs. Unless you're being charged with a crime, even a minor traffic violation, you are required to answer questions to the best of your ability. However, you aren't required to provide identification or personal documents until you're informed of any charges against you.
Beyond your simple right to privacy, the protections of the Fifth Amendment apply to all interactions. While you do need to answer to the best of your ability, you can still decline to answer questions that you feel might provide sufficient evidence for a separate issue. Further, declining to answer certain questions is not grounds for law enforcement to press their investigation.
During any interaction with police, you're assumed to be free to leave at any time unless you're informed otherwise by the officer. Once you're no longer free to go you're assumed to be "Detained," a status which presents different challenges for both you and the police officer you're dealing with. You can now be compelled to provide official documentation and identification, but police are also required to inform you of the reason you're being detained.
Being detained for further questioning will almost certainly escalate to an arrest, so your right to refuse questions expands. Likewise, you also have the right to legal representation during any further interaction with police. At this point, you can choose to be more compliant and provide more information about the specific events that led to your detainment, or you can wait for a lawyer to be present. However, without sufficient reasonable cause, the officer in question may face disciplinary action or criminal charges for overstepping their authority.
For the uninformed, interactions with police can be nerve wracking, so educate yourself. Remember though, the vast majority of law enforcement personnel are simply there to do their job and go on about their day. If they have cause for an official interaction it's in your best interest to be as polite, calm and reasonable as possible. If the situation begins to turn against you it's also in your best interests to cease cooperating and request legal representation. Contact a professional like Marie A. Mattox, P.A. for more information.